Home PV: How to find the optimal solution for photovoltaic power generation?
Time: 2020-10-10

People always ask, "How much does it cost to renovate my home?" This is actually a very vague question. This is not like buying instant noodles in the supermarket or eating bowls of noodles on the street, where you can get a clear answer directly. After many irritating discussions and lengthy explanations, I roughly summarize this problem as follows. First, determine the installed capacity, and the main factors that determine the installed capacity are: space, budget, and electricity consumption.

       The issue of space is easier to understand. You need a sunny, unobstructed, ground, roof or at least a south wall that has the installation conditions. Three conditions are indispensable. The size of the space that meets the conditions determines how much it can be installed. Let's take polysilicon components as an example. If it is tiled or nearly tiled, about 150Wp can be installed per square meter. Considering the maximum use of light throughout the year, it should be installed at the best inclination angle, which must be measured based on geographic latitude.

       Another point to emphasize is that the general idea of many people is that photovoltaic modules must be installed with a roof or open space, but this is not of universal significance for Chinese residents who mainly live in buildings, and they are installed on the south wall. Installed in the form of a rain canopy, it can be adapted to more Chinese families. Moreover, the installation of the south wall does not have property rights issues like roof installation, nor will it occupy space with solar water heaters, so it is more universal and has greater promotion significance.

       Needless to say about the budget, the unit price of distributed photovoltaic power plants is about 9-12 yuan/Wp depending on the scale. This unit price span is quite large, mainly because the electrical structure and support structure, as well as the labor cost, have a large room for change. If you use better materials or installation solutions, the price may even be higher. And if the scale is large and the cost control is low, it may be controlled below 9 yuan/Wp. The data here is only empirical data, and specific analysis is needed for changes in market conditions.

       The electricity consumption situation is a bit more complicated. This should consider the household's electricity consumption habits and electricity consumption.

       Similarly, the size of photovoltaic installed capacity also determines the degree of matching between electricity consumption and power generation curves. If the installed capacity of photovoltaics is blindly pursued, the power generation will greatly exceed the power consumption, resulting in a decrease in the matching degree. The result is "low-price selling". Electricity" phase.

       For "high-priced households" more electricity, it will affect revenue to a certain extent. However, because the current domestic photovoltaic subsidies are fairly generous, these effects are not particularly sensitive in family-scale distributed photovoltaic projects, and specific analysis needs to be made according to the project.

       There is also a situation where household electricity consumption is very large, which exceeds the third-tier standard of grounded electricity prices. At this time, its photovoltaic installed capacity can cut or reduce its third-tier power consumption. Taking Jiangsu as an example, the residential electricity consumption is 0.5283 yuan/kWh. Since the third-tier electricity price is 0.3 yuan/kWh higher than the normal electricity price, the final settlement of the third-tier electricity price is 0.8283 yuan/kWh. Adding the 0.42 yuan/degree subsidy promised by the National Development and Reform Commission, the income is 1.2483 yuan/degree. Supporting subsidies for various provinces and cities have not yet been introduced, and according to policy observations, their income will further increase after their introduction.

       At this time, if the installed capacity is below the appropriate range, the rate of return is basically unchanged, and if the installed capacity is too large, a larger portion will be settled at a lower price or settled at a lower electricity price, which will bring income The rate of decline. However, based on the current domestic housing situation, the probability and extent of this happening in cities and towns is low.

       Therefore: Generally speaking, the more electricity-consuming households, the more cost-effective it is to install photovoltaic power generation systems; the matching of electricity consumption and power generation is a very important factor. Good matching will bring better return on investment and be more beneficial The promotion and application of photovoltaics.

       Based on the above discussion, review the installed capacity of household photovoltaic installations. The first consideration is installation space and budget. These two factors determine the upper limit of photovoltaic installations. On this basis, blindly installing more photovoltaics may not be the best choice. On the contrary, the smaller the installed capacity, the better the return on investment. Within the matching capacity range of electricity and power generation, the reduction of installed capacity will not bring about a decrease in revenue, and the excess installed capacity that exceeds the best matching will bring about a decrease in revenue. But in the family of office workers, the impact of installed capacity on the rate of return is relatively insignificant.

       Office workers consume almost zero electricity during the day, and only consume more electricity in the morning and evening. The home type often consumes electricity from day to night before going to bed.

       After the photovoltaic installation, its power generation is basically dependent on the sky, and the positive impact that man-made can produce is very small. Generally speaking, the price of electricity is higher than the on-grid electricity price of surplus electricity. Therefore, the larger the proportion of electricity generated by photovoltaic power, the more cost-effective it is.

       However, the electricity consumption habits are determined by the specific circumstances of each family, and are not changed randomly. Therefore, in home-type families, more consideration should be given to the matching of electricity consumption and power generation curves. However, the electricity consumption curve and photovoltaic power generation curve of office workers are basically complementary, so their power generation is mainly used for the Internet. At this time, the matching degree of electricity consumption and power generation curve is relatively unimportant. Of course, the development of the Internet of Things and smart homes currently being brewed will generate a lot of standby power during the day, and some power-consuming tasks can be remotely controlled during the day. Therefore, when the smart home matures, and photovoltaic distributed power generation will become Perfect match.

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